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Bootstrap grid

In this section, you can learn about options for structuring your pages with MDB, including global styles, required scaffolding, grid system, and more.

MDB includes several components and options for laying out your project, including wrapping containers, a powerful grid system, a flexible media object, and responsive utility classes.

Containers

Containers are the most basic layout element in Bootstrap and are required when using our default grid system. Choose from a responsive, fixed-width container (meaning its max-width changes at each breakpoint) or fluid-width (meaning it’s 100% wide all the time).

While containers can be nested, most layouts do not require a nested container.


Regular container
A display of a regular container.

<div class="container">
  <!-- Content here -->
</div>


Fluid container

Use .container-fluid for a full-width container, spanning the entire width of the viewport.

A display of a fluid container.

<div class="container-fluid">
  <!-- Content here -->
</div>

Responsive breakpoints

Since Bootstrap is developed to be mobile first, we use a handful of media queries to create sensible breakpoints for our layouts and interfaces. These breakpoints are mostly based on minimum viewport widths and allow us to scale up elements as the viewport changes.

Bootstrap primarily uses the following media query ranges—or breakpoints—in our source Sass files for our layout, grid system, and components.


// Extra small devices (portrait phones, less than 576px)
// No media query since this is the default in Bootstrap

// Small devices (landscape phones, 576px and up)
@media (min-width: 576px) { ... }

// Medium devices (tablets, 768px and up)
@media (min-width: 768px) { ... }

// Large devices (desktops, 992px and up)
@media (min-width: 992px) { ... }

// Extra large devices (large desktops, 1200px and up)
@media (min-width: 1200px) { ... }

We occasionally use media queries that go in the other direction (the given screen size or smaller):


// Extra small devices (portrait phones, less than 576px)
@media (max-width: 575px) { ... }

// Small devices (landscape phones, less than 768px)
@media (max-width: 767px) { ... }

// Medium devices (tablets, less than 992px)
@media (max-width: 991px) { ... }

// Large devices (desktops, less than 1200px)
@media (max-width: 1199px) { ... }

// Extra large devices (large desktops)
// No media query since the extra-large breakpoint has no upper bound on its width

Grid system

Bootstrap includes a powerful mobile-first grid system for building layouts of all shapes and sizes. It’s based on a 12 column layout and has multiple tiers, one for each media query range. You can use it with Sass mixins or our predefined classes.


How it works

At a high level, here’s how the grid system works:

  1. Containers provide a means to center your site’s contents. Use .container for fixed width or .container-fluid for full width.
  2. Rows are horizontal groups of columns that ensure your columns are lined up properly. We use the negative margin method on .row to ensure all your content is aligned properly down the left side.
  3. Content should be placed within columns, and only columns may be immediate children of rows.
  4. Thanks to flexbox, grid columns without a set width will automatically layout with equal widths. For example, four instances of .col-sm will each automatically be 25% wide for small breakpoints.
  5. Column classes indicate the number of columns you’d like to use out of the possible 12 per row. So, if you want three equal-width columns, you can use .col-sm-4.
  6. Column widths are set in percentages, so they’re always fluid and sized relative to their parent element.
  7. Columns have horizontal padding to create the gutters between individual columns, however, you can remove the margin from rows and padding from columns with .no-gutters on the .row.
  8. There are five grid tiers, one for each responsive breakpoint: all breakpoints (extra small), small, medium, large, and extra large.
  9. Grid tiers are based on minimum widths, meaning they apply to that one tier and all those above it (e.g., .col-sm-4 applies to small, medium, large, and extra large devices).
  10. You can use predefined grid classes or Sass mixins for more semantic markup.

Quick start example


One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

<div class="container">
  <div class="row">
   
    <div class="col">
      One of three columns
    </div>
    
    <div class="col">
      One of three columns
    </div>
    
    <div class="col">
      One of three columns
    </div>
    
  </div>
</div>

The above example creates three equal-width columns on small, medium, large, and extra large devices using our predefined grid classes. Those columns are centered in the page with the parent .container.

Grid options

While Bootstrap uses ems or rems for defining most sizes, pxs are used for grid breakpoints and container widths. This is because the viewport width is in pixels and does not change with the font size.

Extra small
<576px
Small
≥576px
Medium
≥768px
Large
≥992px
Extra large
≥1200px
Grid behavior Horizontal at all times Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints
Container width None (auto) 540px 720px 960px 1140px
Class prefix .col- .col-sm- .col-md- .col-lg- .col-xl-
# of columns 12
Gutter width 1.875rem / 30px (15px on each side of a column)
Nestable Yes
Offsets Yes
Column ordering Yes

Auto-layout columns

Utilize breakpoint-specific column classes for equal-width columns. Add any number of unit-less classes for each breakpoint you need and every column will be the same width.

Equal-width

For example, here are two grid layouts that apply to every device and viewport, from xs to xl.

1 of 2
1 of 2
1 of 3
1 of 3
1 of 3

<div class="container">
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col">
      1 of 2
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      1 of 2
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col">
      1 of 3
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      1 of 3
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      1 of 3
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

Setting one column width

Auto-layout for flexbox grid columns also means you can set the width of one column and the others will automatically resize around it. You may use predefined grid classes (as shown below), grid mixins, or inline widths. Note that the other columns will resize no matter the width of the center column.

1 of 3
2 of 3 (wider)
3 of 3
1 of 3
2 of 3 (wider)
3 of 3

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col">
            1 of 3
        </div>
        <div class="col-6">
            2 of 3 (wider)
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            3 of 3
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col">
            1 of 3
        </div>
        <div class="col-5">
            2 of 3 (wider)
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            3 of 3
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

Variable width content

Using the col-{breakpoint}-auto classes, columns can size itself based on the natural width of its content. This is super handy with single line content like inputs, numbers, etc. This, in conjunction with horizontal alignment classes, is very useful for centering layouts with uneven column sizes as viewport width changes.

1 of 3
Variable width content
3 of 3
1 of 3
Variable width content
3 of 3

<div class="container">
    <div class="row justify-content-md-center">
        <div class="col col-lg-2">
            1 of 3
        </div>
        <div class="col-12 col-md-auto">
            Variable width content
        </div>
        <div class="col col-lg-2">
            3 of 3
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col">
            1 of 3
        </div>
        <div class="col-12 col-md-auto">
            Variable width content
        </div>
        <div class="col col-lg-2">
            3 of 3
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

Equal-width multi-row

Create equal-width columns that span multiple rows by inserting a .w-100 where you want the columns to break to a new line. Make the breaks responsive by mixing the .w-100 with some responsive display utilities.

col
col
col
col

<div class="row">
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="w-100"></div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
</div>

Responsive classes

Bootstrap’s grid includes five tiers of predefined classes for building complex responsive layouts. Customize the size of your columns on extra small, small, medium, large, or extra large devices however you see fit.


All breakpoints

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the .col and .col-* classes. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to .col.

col
col
col
col
col-8
col-4

<div class="row">
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
    <div class="col">
        col
    </div>
</div>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-8">
        col-8
    </div>
    <div class="col-4">
        col-4
    </div>
</div>

Stacked to horizontal

Using a single set of .col-sm-* classes, you can create a basic grid system that starts out stacked on extra small devices before becoming horizontal on desktop (medium) devices.

col-sm-8
col-sm-4
col-sm
col-sm
col-sm

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-8">
        col-sm-8
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-4">
        col-sm-4
    </div>
</div>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm">
        col-sm
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm">
        col-sm
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm">
        col-sm
    </div>
</div>
      

Mix and match

Don’t want your columns to simply stack in some grid tiers? Use a combination of different classes for each tier as needed. See the example below for a better idea of how it all works.

.col .col-md-8
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6
.col-6

<!-- Stack the columns on mobile by making one full-width and the other half-width -->
<div class="row">
    <div class="col col-md-8">
        .col .col-md-8
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-md-4">
        .col-6 .col-md-4
    </div>
</div>

<!-- Columns start at 50% wide on mobile and bump up to 33.3% wide on desktop -->
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-6 col-md-4">
        .col-6 .col-md-4
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-md-4">
        .col-6 .col-md-4
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-md-4">
        .col-6 .col-md-4
    </div>
</div>

<!-- Columns are always 50% wide, on mobile and desktop -->
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-6">
        .col-6
    </div>
    <div class="col-6">
        .col-6
    </div>
</div>

Alignment

Use flexbox alignment utilities to vertically and horizontally align columns.


Vertical alignment

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the .col and .col-* classes. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to .col.

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

<div class="container">
    <div class="row align-items-start">
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row align-items-center">
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row align-items-end">
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col">
            One of three columns
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col align-self-start">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col align-self-center">
            One of three columns
        </div>
        <div class="col align-self-end">
            One of three columns
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

Horizontal alignment

One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns

<div class="container">
    <div class="row justify-content-start">
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row justify-content-center">
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row justify-content-end">
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row justify-content-around">
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row justify-content-between">
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
        <div class="col-4">
            One of two columns
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

No gutters

The gutters between columns in our predefined grid classes can be removed with .no-gutters. This removes the negative margins from .row and the horizontal padding from all immediate children columns.

Here’s the source code for creating these styles. Note that column overrides are scoped to only the first children columns and are targeted via attribute selector. While this generates a more specific selector, column padding can still be further customized with spacing utilities.


.no-gutters {
  margin-right: 0;
  margin-left: 0;

  > .col,
  > [class*="col-"] {
    padding-right: 0;
    padding-left: 0;
  }
}

In practice, here’s how it looks. Note you can continue to use this with all other predefined grid classes (including column widths, responsive tiers, reorders, and more).

.col-12 .col-sm-6 .col-md-8
.col-6 .col-md-4

<div class="row no-gutters">
    <div class="col-12 col-sm-6 col-md-8">
        .col-12 .col-sm-6 .col-md-8
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-md-4">
        .col-6 .col-md-4
    </div>
</div>

Column wrapping

If more than 12 columns are placed within a single row, each group of extra columns will, as one unit, wrap onto a new line.

.col-9
.col-4
Since 9 + 4 = 13 > 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.
.col-6
Subsequent columns continue along the new line.

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-9">
        .col-9
    </div>
    <div class="col-4">
        .col-4<br>
        Since 9 + 4 = 13 > 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.
    </div>
    <div class="col-6">
        .col-6<br>
        Subsequent columns continue along the new line.
    </div>
</div>

Column resets

With the handful of grid tiers available, you’re bound to run into issues where, at certain breakpoints, your columns don’t clear quite right as one is taller than the other. To fix that, use a combination of a .clearfix and our responsive utility classes.

.col-6 .col-sm-3
.col-6 .col-sm-3
.col-6 .col-sm-3
.col-6 .col-sm-3

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-6 col-sm-3">
        .col-6 .col-sm-3
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-sm-3">
        .col-6 .col-sm-3
    </div>

    <!-- Add the extra clearfix for only the required viewport -->
    <div class="clearfix hidden-sm-up"></div>

    <div class="col-6 col-sm-3">
        .col-6 .col-sm-3
    </div>
    <div class="col-6 col-sm-3">
        .col-6 .col-sm-3
    </div>
</div>

In addition to column clearing at responsive breakpoints, you may need to reset offsets, pushes, or pulls. See this in action in the grid example.

.col-sm-5 .col-md-6
.col-sm-5 .offset-sm-2 .col-md-6 .offset-md-0
.col.col-sm-6.col-md-5.col-lg-6
.col-sm-6 .col-md-5 .offset-md-2 .col-lg-6 .offset-lg-0

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-5 col-md-6">
        .col-sm-5 .col-md-6
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-5 offset-sm-2 col-md-6 offset-md-0">
        .col-sm-5 .offset-sm-2 .col-md-6 .offset-md-0
    </div>
</div>

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-6 col-md-5 col-lg-6">
        .col.col-sm-6.col-md-5.col-lg-6
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-6 col-md-5 offset-md-2 col-lg-6 offset-lg-0">
        .col-sm-6 .col-md-5 .offset-md-2 .col-lg-6 .offset-lg-0
    </div>
</div>

Reordering

Flex order

Use flexbox utilities for controlling the visual order of your content.

First, but unordered
Second, but last
Third, but first

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col flex-unordered">
            First, but unordered
        </div>
        <div class="col flex-last">
            Second, but last
        </div>
        <div class="col flex-first">
            Third, but first
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

Offsetting columns

Move columns to the right using .offset-md-* classes. These classes increase the left margin of a column by * columns. For example, .offset-md-4 moves .col-md-4 over four columns.

.col-md-4
.col-md-4 .offset-md-4
.col-md-3 .offset-md-3
.col-md-3 .offset-md-3
.col-md-6 .offset-md-3

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-4">
        .col-md-4
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4 offset-md-4">
        .col-md-4 .offset-md-4
    </div>
</div>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-3 offset-md-3">
        .col-md-3 .offset-md-3
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 offset-md-3">
        .col-md-3 .offset-md-3
    </div>
</div>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-6 offset-md-3">
        .col-md-6 .offset-md-3
    </div>
</div>

Push and pull

Easily change the order of our built-in grid columns with .push-md-* and .pull-md-* modifier classes.

.col-md-9 .push-md-3
.col-md-3 .pull-md-9

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-9 push-md-3">
        .col-md-9 .push-md-3
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 pull-md-9">
        .col-md-3 .pull-md-9
    </div>
</div>

Nesting

To nest your content with the default grid, add a new .row and set of .col-sm-* columns within an existing .col-sm-* column. Nested rows should include a set of columns that add up to 12 or fewer (it is not required that you use all 12 available columns).

Level 1: .col-sm-9
Level 2: .col-8 .col-sm-6
Level 2: .col-4 .col-sm-6

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-9">
        Level 1: .col-sm-9
        <div class="row">
            <div class="col-8 col-sm-6">
                Level 2: .col-8 .col-sm-6
            </div>
            <div class="col-4 col-sm-6">
                Level 2: .col-4 .col-sm-6
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>