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Vue Bootstrap Grid Usage

Vue Grid usage - Bootstrap 4 & Material Design

Use the powerful mobile-first flexbox grid to build layouts of all shapes and sizes thanks to a twelve column system, five default responsive tiers, Sass variables and mixins, and dozens of predefined classes.


How it works

Bootstrap’s grid system uses a series of containers, rows, and columns to layout and align content. It’s built with flexbox and is fully responsive. Below is an example and an in-depth look at how the grid comes together.

New to or unfamiliar with flexbox? Read our CSS flexbox guide.

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="sm">One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="sm">One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="sm">One of three columns</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

The above example creates three equal-width columns on small, medium, large, and extra large devices using our predefined grid classes. Those columns are centered in the page with the parent mdb-container.

Breaking it down, here’s how it works:

  • Containers provide a means to center your site’s contents. Use mdb-ontainer for fixed width or mdb-container with fluid prop for width: 100% across all viewport and device sizes.
  • Rows are wrappers for columns. Each column has horizontal padding (called a gutter) for controlling the space between them. This padding is then counteracted on the rows with negative margins. This way, all the content in your columns is visually aligned down the left side.
  • In a grid layout, content must be placed within columns and only columns may be immediate children of rows.
  • Thanks to flexbox, grid columns without a specified width will automatically layout as equal width columns. For example, four instances of sm="4" will each automatically be 25% wide from the small breakpoint and up. See the auto-layout columns section for more examples.
  • Column classes indicate the number of columns you’d like to use out of the possible 12 per row. So, if you want three equal-width columns, you can use .col-sm-4.
  • Column widths are set in percentages, so they’re always fluid and sized relative to their parent element.
  • Columns have horizontal padding to create the gutters between individual columns, however, you can remove the margin from rows and padding from columns with .no-gutters on the mdb-row.
  • To make the grid responsive, there are five grid breakpoints, one for each responsive breakpoint: all breakpoints (extra small), small, medium, large, and extra large.
  • Grid breakpoints are based on minimum width media queries, meaning they apply to that one breakpoint and all those above it (e.g., sm="4" applies to small, medium, large, and extra large devices, but not the first xs breakpoint).
  • You can use predefined grid classes (like col="4") or Sass mixins for more semantic markup.

Be aware of the limitations and bugs around flexbox, like the inability to use some HTML elements as flex containers.


Grid options

While Bootstrap uses ems or rems for defining most sizes, pxs are used for grid breakpoints and container widths. This is because the viewport width is in pixels and does not change with the font size.

See how aspects of the Bootstrap grid system work across multiple devices with a handy table.

Extra small
<576px
Small
≥576px
Medium
≥768px
Large
≥992px
Extra large
≥1200px
Grid behavior Horizontal at all times Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints
Container width None (auto) 540px 720px 960px 1140px
Class prefix .col- .col-sm- .col-md- .col-lg- .col-xl-
# of columns 12
Gutter width 30px (15px on each side of a column)
Nestable Yes
Column ordering Yes

Auto-layout columns

Utilize breakpoint-specific column classes for easy column sizing without an explicit numbered prop like sm="6".

Equal-width

For example, here are two grid layouts that apply to every device and viewport, from xs to xl. Add any number of unit-less classes for each breakpoint you need and every column will be the same width.

1 of 2
1 of 2
1 of 3
1 of 3
1 of 3


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>1 of 2</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>2 of 2</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>1 of 3</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>2 of 3</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>3 of 3</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

Equal-width columns can be broken into multiple lines, but there is a Safari flexbox bug that prevents this from working without an explicit flex-basis or border. There are workarounds for older browser versions, but they shouldn’t be necessary if you’re up-to-date.

Column
Column
Column
Column


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>Column</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>Column</mdb-col>
            <div class="w-100"></div>
            <mdb-col>Column</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>Column</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

Setting one column width

Auto-layout for flexbox grid columns also means you can set the width of one column and have the sibling columns automatically resize around it. You may use predefined grid classes (as shown below), grid mixins, or inline widths. Note that the other columns will resize no matter the width of the center column.

1 of 3
2 of 3 (wider)
3 of 3
1 of 3
2 of 3 (wider)
3 of 3


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>1 of 3</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6">2 of 3 (wider)</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>3 of 3</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>1 of 3</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="5">2 of 3 (wider)</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>3 of 3</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

Variable width content

Using the col-{breakpoint}-auto classes, columns can size itself based on the natural width of its content. This is particularly handy when dealing with single line content (like inputs, numbers, etc.) or in conjunction horizontal alignment classes, when centering layouts with uneven column sizes as viewport width changes.

1 of 3
Variable width content
3 of 3
1 of 3
Variable width content
3 of 3

Equal-width multi-row

Create equal-width columns that span multiple rows by inserting a .w-100 where you want the columns to break to a new line. Make the breaks responsive by mixing the .w-100 with some responsive display utilities.

col
col
col
col


      <mdb-container>
        <mdb-row>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <div class="w-100"></div>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
        </mdb-row>
      </mdb-container>

    

Responsive classes

Bootstrap’s grid includes five tiers of predefined classes for building complex responsive layouts. Customize the size of your columns on extra small, small, medium, large, or extra large devices however you see fit.

All breakpoints

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the col="*" props. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to mdb-col.

col
col
col
col
col-8
col-4


      <mdb-container>
        <mdb-row>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col>col</mdb-col>
        </mdb-row>
        <mdb-row>
          <mdb-col col="8">col</mdb-col>
          <mdb-col col="4">col</mdb-col>
        </mdb-row>
      </mdb-container>

    

Stacked to horizontal

Using a single set of sm="*" props, you can create a basic grid system that starts out stacked before becoming horizontal on desktop (medium) devices.

col-sm-8
col-sm-4
col-sm
col-sm
col-sm


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col sm="8">sm="8"</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col sm="4">sm="4"</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="sm">col="sm"</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="sm">col="sm"</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="sm">col="sm"</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

Mix and match

Don’t want your columns to simply stack in some grid tiers? Use a combination of different classes for each tier as needed. See the example below for a better idea of how it all works.

.col .col-md-8
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6 .col-md-4
.col-6
.col-6

        <mdb-container>
          <!-- Stack the columns on mobile by making one full-width and the other half-width -->
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="8">
              md="8"
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6" md="4">
              col="6" md="4"
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>

          <!-- Columns start at 50% wide on mobile and bump up to 33.3% wide on desktop -->
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="6" md="4">
              col="6" md="4"
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6" md="4">
              col="6" md="4"
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6" md="4">
              col="6" md="4"
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>

          <!-- Columns are always 50% wide, on mobile and desktop -->
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="6">
              col="6"
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6">
              col="6"
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Alignment

Use flexbox alignment utilities to vertically and horizontally align columns.

Vertical alignment

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the col="*" props. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to mdb-col.

Align items start

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

Align items center

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

Align items end

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row class="align-items-start">
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="align-items-center">
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="align-items-end">
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col>One of three columns</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Algin self

One of three columns
One of three columns
One of three columns


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col class="align-self-start">One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col class="align-self-center">One of three columns</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col class="align-self-end">One of three columns</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

Horizontal alignment

One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns
One of two columns


        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row class="justify-content-start">
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="justify-content-center">
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="justify-content-end">
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="justify-content-around">
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row class="justify-content-between">
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">
              One of two columns
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>

      

No gutters

The gutters between columns in our predefined grid classes can be removed with .no-gutters. This removes the negative margins from mdb-row and the horizontal padding from all immediate children columns.

Here’s the source code for creating these styles. Note that column overrides are scoped to only the first children columns and are targeted via attribute selector. While this generates a more specific selector, column padding can still be further customized with spacing utilities.

Need an edge-to-edge design? Drop the parent mdb-container or mdb-container with fluid prop.



          .no-gutters {
            margin-right: 0;
            margin-left: 0;

            > .col,
            > [class*="col-"] {
              padding-right: 0;
              padding-left: 0;
            }
          }
      

In practice, here’s how it looks. Note you can continue to use this with all other predefined grid classes (including column widths, responsive tiers, reorders, and more).

.col-12 .col-sm-6 .col-md-8
.col-6 .col-md-4

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row class="no-gutters">
            <mdb-col col="12" sm="6" md="8">
              col="12" sm="6" md="8"
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6" md="4">
              col="6" md="4"
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Column wrapping

If more than 12 columns are placed within a single row, each group of extra columns will, as one unit, wrap onto a new line.

.col-9
.col-4
Since 9 + 4 = 13 > 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.
.col-6
Subsequent columns continue along the new line.

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="9">col="9"</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="4">col="4"
              <br>Since 9 + 4 = 13 &gt; 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="6">col="6"
              <br>Subsequent columns continue along the new line.</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Column breaks

Breaking columns to a new line in flexbox requires a small hack: add an element with width: 100% wherever you want to wrap your columns to a new line. Normally this is accomplished with multiple .rows, but not every implementation method can account for this.

.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4

          <mdb-container>
            <mdb-row>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="3">
                col="6" sm="3"
              </mdb-col>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="3">
                col="6" sm="3"
              </mdb-col>

              <!-- Force next columns to break to new line -->
              <div class="w-100"></div>

              <mdb-col col="6" sm="3">
                col="6" sm="3"
              </mdb-col>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="3">
                col="6" sm="3"
              </mdb-col>
            </mdb-row>
         </mdb-container>
      

With the handful of grid tiers available, you’re bound to run into issues where, at certain breakpoints, your columns don’t clear quite right as one is taller than the other. To fix that, use a combination of a .clearfix and our responsive utility classes.

.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4
.col-6 .col-sm-4

          <mdb-container>
            <mdb-row>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="4">
                col="6" sm="4"
              </mdb-col>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="4">
                col="6" sm="4"
              </mdb-col>

              <!-- Force next columns to break to new line at md breakpoint and up -->
              <div class="w-100 d-none d-md-block"></div>

              <mdb-col col="6" sm="4">
                col="6" sm="4"
              </mdb-col>
              <mdb-col col="6" sm="4">
                col="6" sm="4"
              </mdb-col>
            </mdb-row>
         </mdb-container>
      

Reordering

Order classes

Use .order- classes for controlling the visual order of your content. These classes are responsive, so you can set the order by breakpoint (e.g., .order-1.order-md-2). Includes support for 1 through 12 across all five grid tiers.

First, but unordered
Second, but last
Third, but second

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>
              First, but unordered
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col class="order-12">
              Second, but last
            </mdb-col>
            <mdb-col class="order-1">
              Third, but second
            </mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

There are also responsive .order-first and .order-last classes that change the order of an element by applying order: -1 and order: 13 ( order: $columns + 1), respectively. These classes can also be intermixed with the numbered .order-* classes as needed.

First, but last
Second, but unordered
Third, but first

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col>
              First, but unordered
            </mdb-col>>
            <mdb-col>
              Second, but unordered
            </mdb-col>>
            <mdb-col class="order-first">
              Third, but first
            </mdb-col>>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Offsetting columns

You can offset grid columns in two ways: our responsive offset="*" grid props and our margin utilities. Grid classes are sized to match columns while margins are more useful for quick layouts where the width of the offset is variable.

Offset classes

Move columns to the right using offsetMd="*" props. These classes increase the left margin of a column by * columns. For example, offsetMd="4" moves mdb-col md="4" over four columns.

md="4"
md="4" offsetMd="4"
md="3" offsetMd="3"
md="3" offsetMd="3"
md="6" offsetMd="3"

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="4">md="4"</div>
            <mdb-col md="4" offsetMd="4">md="4" offsetMd="4"</div>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="3" offsetMd="3">md="3" offsetMd="3"</div>
            <mdb-col md="3" offsetMd="3">md="3" offsetMd="3"</div>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="6" offsetMd="3">md="6" offsetMd="3"</div>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

In addition to column clearing at responsive breakpoints, you may need to reset offsets. See this in action in the grid example.

sm="5" md="6"
sm="5" offsetSm="2" md="6" offsetMd="0"
sm="6" md="5" lg="6"
sm="6" md="5" offsetMd="2" lg="6" offsetLg="0"

Margin utilities

With the move to flexbox in v4, you can use margin utilities like .mr-auto to force sibling columns away from one another.

md="4"
.col-md-4 .ml-auto
md="3" .ml-md-auto
md="3" .ml-md-auto
col="auto" .mr-auto
col="auto"

        <mdb-container>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="4">md="4"</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col md="4" class="ml-auto">md="4" .ml-auto</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col md="3" class="ml-md-auto">md="3" .ml-md-auto</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col md="3" class="ml-md-auto">md="3" .ml-md-auto</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
          <mdb-row>
            <mdb-col col="auto" class="mr-auto">col="auto" .mr-auto</mdb-col>
            <mdb-col col="auto">col="auto"</mdb-col>
          </mdb-row>
        </mdb-container>
      

Nesting

To nest your content with the default grid, add a new .row and set of .col-sm-* columns within an existing .col-sm-* column. Nested rows should include a set of columns that add up to 12 or fewer (it is not required that you use all 12 available columns).

Level 1: .col-sm-9
Level 2: .col-8 .col-sm-6
Level 2: .col-4 .col-sm-6

          <mdb-container>
            <mdb-row>
              <mdb-col sm="9">
                Level 1: sm="9"
                <mdb-row>
                  <mdb-col col="8" sm="6">
                    Level 2: col="8" sm="6"
                  </mdb-col>
                  <mdb-col col="4" sm="6">
                    Level 2: col="4" sm="6"
                  </mdb-col>
                </mdb-row>
              </mdb-col>
            </mdb-row>
          </mdb-container>
      

Sass mixins

When using Bootstrap’s source Sass files, you have the option of using Sass variables and mixins to create custom, semantic, and responsive page layouts. Our predefined grid classes use these same variables and mixins to provide a whole suite of ready-to-use classes for fast responsive layout.

Variables

Variables and maps determine the number of columns, the gutter width, and the media query point at which to begin floating columns. We use these to generate the predefined grid classes documented above, as well as for the custom mixins listed below.


          $grid-columns:      12;
          $grid-gutter-width: 30px;

          $grid-breakpoints: (
            // Extra small screen / phone
            xs: 0,
            // Small screen / phone
            sm: 576px,
            // Medium screen / tablet
            md: 768px,
            // Large screen / desktop
            lg: 992px,
            // Extra large screen / wide desktop
            xl: 1200px
          );

          $container-max-widths: (
            sm: 540px,
            md: 720px,
            lg: 960px,
            xl: 1140px
          );
      

Mixins

Mixins are used in conjunction with the grid variables to generate semantic CSS for individual grid columns.


          // Creates a wrapper for a series of columns
          @include make-row();

          // Make the element grid-ready (applying everything but the width)
          @include make-col-ready();
          @include make-col($size, $columns: $grid-columns);

          // Get fancy by offsetting, or changing the sort order
          @include make-col-offset($size, $columns: $grid-columns);
      

Example usage

You can modify the variables to your own custom values, or just use the mixins with their default values. Here’s an example of using the default settings to create a two-column layout with a gap between.

Main content
Secondary content

        <div class="example-container">
          <div class="example-row">
            <div class="example-content-main">Main content</div>
            <div class="example-content-secondary">Secondary content</div>
          </div>
        </div>
      

          .example-container {
            width: 800px;
            @include make-container();
          }

          .example-row {
            @include make-row();
          }

          .example-content-main {
            @include make-col-ready();

            @include media-breakpoint-up(sm) {
              @include make-col(6);
            }
            @include media-breakpoint-up(lg) {
              @include make-col(8);
            }
          }

          .example-content-secondary {
            @include make-col-ready();

            @include media-breakpoint-up(sm) {
              @include make-col(6);
            }
            @include media-breakpoint-up(lg) {
              @include make-col(4);
            }
          }
      

Customizing the grid

Using our built-in grid Sass variables and maps, it’s possible to completely customize the predefined grid classes. Change the number of tiers, the media query dimensions, and the container widths—then recompile.

Columns and gutters

The number of grid columns and their horizontal padding (aka, gutters) can be modified via Sass variables. $grid-columns is used to generate the widths (in percent) of each individual column while $grid-gutter-widths allows breakpoint-specific widths that are divided evenly across padding-left and padding-right for the column gutters.



          $grid-columns: 12 !default;
          $grid-gutter-width: 30px !default;

      

Grid tiers

Moving beyond the columns themselves, you may also customize the number of grid tiers. If you wanted just three grid tiers, you’d update the $grid-breakpoints and $container-max-widths to something like this:


          $grid-breakpoints: (
            xs: 0,
            sm: 480px,
            md: 768px,
            lg: 1024px
          );

          $container-max-widths: (
            sm: 420px,
            md: 720px,
            lg: 960px
          );
      

When making any changes to the Sass variables or maps, you’ll need to save your changes and recompile. Doing so will output a brand new set of predefined grid classes for column widths, offsets, and ordering. Responsive visibility utilities will also be updated to use the custom breakpoints. Make sure to set grid values in px (not rem, em, or %).