Bootstrap 5 Spacing utilities

MDB includes a wide range of shorthand responsive margin and padding utility classes to modify an element’s appearance.

How it works

Assign responsive-friendly margin or padding values to an element or a subset of its sides with shorthand classes. Includes support for individual properties, all properties, and vertical and horizontal properties. Classes are built from a default Sass map ranging from .25rem to 3rem.

Note: If you want to add margin to the left side you must use the class ms-* (margin start) instead of ml-* (margin left).

Likewise for the margin on the right: you have to use the class me-* (margin end) instead of mr-* (margin right).

Below is an example using classes for the right margin with a visual representation of their sizes. The same sizes apply to all directions (left, right, top, bottom) and for both margins and padding.

Class name Size Visual representation
.me-1 0.25rem
.me-2 0.5rem
.me-3 1rem
.me-4 1.5rem
.me-5 3rem


Spacing utilities that apply to all breakpoints, from xs to xxl, have no breakpoint abbreviation in them. This is because those classes are applied from min-width: 0 and up, and thus are not bound by a media query. The remaining breakpoints, however, do include a breakpoint abbreviation.

The classes are named using the format {property}{sides}-{size} for xs and {property}{sides}-{breakpoint}-{size} for sm, md, lg, xl, and xxl.

Where property is one of:

  • m - for classes that set margin
  • p - for classes that set padding

Where sides is one of:

  • t - for classes that set margin-top or padding-top
  • b - for classes that set margin-bottom or padding-bottom
  • s - (start) for classes that set margin-left or padding-left
  • e - (end) for classes that set margin-right or padding-right
  • x - for classes that set both *-left and *-right
  • y - for classes that set both *-top and *-bottom
  • blank - for classes that set a margin or padding on all 4 sides of the element

Where size is one of:

  • 0 - for classes that eliminate the margin or padding by setting it to 0
  • 1 - (by default) for classes that set the margin or padding to $spacer * .25
  • 2 - (by default) for classes that set the margin or padding to $spacer * .5
  • 3 - (by default) for classes that set the margin or padding to $spacer
  • 4 - (by default) for classes that set the margin or padding to $spacer * 1.5
  • 5 - (by default) for classes that set the margin or padding to $spacer * 3
  • auto - for classes that set the margin to auto

(You can add more sizes by adding entries to the $spacers Sass map variable.)


Here are some representative examples of these classes:


          .mt-0 {
            margin-top: 0 !important;

          .ms-1 {
            margin-left: ($spacer * .25) !important;

          .px-2 {
            padding-left: ($spacer * .5) !important;
            padding-right: ($spacer * .5) !important;

          .p-3 {
            padding: $spacer !important;


Horizontal centering

Additionally, Bootstrap also includes an .mx-auto class for horizontally centering fixed-width block level content—that is, content that has display: block and a width set—by setting the horizontal margins to auto.

            <div class="mx-auto" style="width: 200px">Centered element</div>

Negative margin

In CSS, margin properties can utilize negative values (padding cannot). These negative margins are disabled by default, but can be enabled in Sass by setting $enable-negative-margins: true.

The syntax is nearly the same as the default, positive margin utilities, but with the addition of n before the requested size. Here’s an example class that’s the opposite of .mt-1:


            .mt-n1 {
              margin-top: -0.25rem !important;



When using display: grid, you can make use of gap utilities on the parent grid container. This can save on having to add margin utilities to individual grid items (children of a display: grid container). Gap utilities are responsive by default, and are generated via our utilities API, based on the $spacers Sass map.

Grid item 1
Grid item 2
Grid item 3
            <div class="d-grid gap-3">
              <div class="p-2 bg-body-tertiary border">Grid item 1</div>
              <div class="p-2 bg-body-tertiary border">Grid item 2</div>
              <div class="p-2 bg-body-tertiary border">Grid item 3</div>

Support includes responsive options for all of Bootstrap’s grid breakpoints, as well as six sizes from the $spacers map (05). There is no .gap-auto utility class as it’s effectively the same as .gap-0.

Extra scale for the bottom margin

By default, MDB provides an additional scale for the bottom margin.

This allows for easier positioning of larger elements (such as sections or design blocks) in relation to each other and more comfortable creating a layout with a consistent composition.

Note:The standard scale with classes from .mb-1 to .mb-5 works as normal. The classes below are additional and only apply to the bottom margin.

.mb-6 3.5rem
.mb-7 4rem
.mb-8 5rem
.mb-9 6rem
.mb-10 8rem
.mb-11 10rem
.mb-12 12rem
.mb-13 14rem
.mb-14 16rem